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The Universal Viral Machine: Bits, Parasites and the Media Ecology of Network Culture

Jussi Parikka
1000 Days of Theory: td029
December 2005

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During the past few decades, biological creatures like viruses, worms, bugs and bacteria seem to have migrated from their natural habitats to ecologies of silicone and electricity. The media has also been eager to employ these figures of life and monstrosity in representing miniprograms, turning them into digital Godzillas and other mythical monsters. The anxiety these programs produce is largely due to their alleged status as near-living programs, as exemplified in this quote on the Internet worm of 1988

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